Document


Document.prototype.$ignore()

Parameters
  • path «String» the path to ignore

Don't run validation on this path or persist changes to this path.

Example:

doc.foo = null;
doc.$ignore('foo');
doc.save(); // changes to foo will not be persisted and validators won't be run

Document.prototype.$isDefault()

Parameters
  • [path] «String»
Returns:
  • «Boolean»

Checks if a path is set to its default.

Example

MyModel = mongoose.model('test', { name: { type: String, default: 'Val '} });
var m = new MyModel();
m.$isDefault('name'); // true

Document.prototype.$isDeleted()

Parameters
  • [val] «Boolean» optional, overrides whether mongoose thinks the doc is deleted
Returns:
  • «Boolean» whether mongoose thinks this doc is deleted.

Getter/setter, determines whether the document was removed or not.

Example:

product.remove(function (err, product) {
  product.$isDeleted(); // true
  product.remove(); // no-op, doesn't send anything to the db

  product.$isDeleted(false);
  product.$isDeleted(); // false
  product.remove(); // will execute a remove against the db
})

Document.prototype.$isEmpty()

Returns:
  • «Boolean»

Returns true if the given path is nullish or only contains empty objects. Useful for determining whether this subdoc will get stripped out by the minimize option.

Example:

const schema = new Schema({ nested: { foo: String } });
const Model = mongoose.model('Test', schema);
const doc = new Model({});
doc.$isEmpty('nested'); // true
doc.nested.$isEmpty(); // true

doc.nested.foo = 'bar';
doc.$isEmpty('nested'); // false
doc.nested.$isEmpty(); // false

Document.prototype.$locals

Type:
  • «property»

Empty object that you can use for storing properties on the document. This is handy for passing data to middleware without conflicting with Mongoose internals.

Example:

schema.pre('save', function() {
  // Mongoose will set `isNew` to `false` if `save()` succeeds
  this.$locals.wasNew = this.isNew;
});

schema.post('save', function() {
  // Prints true if `isNew` was set before `save()`
  console.log(this.$locals.wasNew);
});

Document.prototype.$markValid()

Parameters
  • path «String» the field to mark as valid

Marks a path as valid, removing existing validation errors.


Document.prototype.$session()

Parameters
  • [session] «ClientSession» overwrite the current session
Returns:
  • «ClientSession»

Getter/setter around the session associated with this document. Used to automatically set session if you save() a doc that you got from a query with an associated session.

Example:

const session = MyModel.startSession();
const doc = await MyModel.findOne().session(session);
doc.$session() === session; // true
doc.$session(null);
doc.$session() === null; // true

If this is a top-level document, setting the session propagates to all child docs.


Document.prototype.$set()

Parameters
  • path «String|Object» path or object of key/vals to set
  • val «Any» the value to set
  • [type] «Schema|String|Number|Buffer|*» optionally specify a type for "on-the-fly" attributes
  • [options] «Object» optionally specify options that modify the behavior of the set

Alias for set(), used internally to avoid conflicts


Document.prototype.depopulate()

Parameters
  • path «String»
Returns:
  • «Document» this

Takes a populated field and returns it to its unpopulated state.

Example:

Model.findOne().populate('author').exec(function (err, doc) {
  console.log(doc.author.name); // Dr.Seuss
  console.log(doc.depopulate('author'));
  console.log(doc.author); // '5144cf8050f071d979c118a7'
})

If the path was not populated, this is a no-op.


Document.prototype.directModifiedPaths()

Returns:
  • «Array»

Returns the list of paths that have been directly modified. A direct modified path is a path that you explicitly set, whether via doc.foo = 'bar', Object.assign(doc, { foo: 'bar' }), or doc.set('foo', 'bar').

A path a may be in modifiedPaths() but not in directModifiedPaths() because a child of a was directly modified.

Example

const schema = new Schema({ foo: String, nested: { bar: String } });
const Model = mongoose.model('Test', schema);
await Model.create({ foo: 'original', nested: { bar: 'original' } });

const doc = await Model.findOne();
doc.nested.bar = 'modified';
doc.directModifiedPaths(); // ['nested.bar']
doc.modifiedPaths(); // ['nested', 'nested.bar']

Document.prototype.equals()

Parameters
  • doc «Document» a document to compare
Returns:
  • «Boolean»

Returns true if the Document stores the same data as doc.

Documents are considered equal when they have matching _ids, unless neither document has an _id, in which case this function falls back to using deepEqual().


Document.prototype.errors

Type:
  • «property»

Hash containing current validation errors.


Document.prototype.execPopulate()

Parameters
  • [callback] «Function» optional callback. If specified, a promise will not be returned
Returns:
  • «Promise» promise that resolves to the document when population is done

Explicitly executes population and returns a promise. Useful for ES2015 integration.

Example:

var promise = doc.
  populate('company').
  populate({
    path: 'notes',
    match: /airline/,
    select: 'text',
    model: 'modelName'
    options: opts
  }).
  execPopulate();

// summary
doc.execPopulate().then(resolve, reject);

Document.prototype.get()

Parameters
  • path «String»
  • [type] «Schema|String|Number|Buffer|*» optionally specify a type for on-the-fly attributes
  • [options] «Object»
    • [options.virtuals=false] «Boolean» Apply virtuals before getting this path
    • [options.getters=true] «Boolean» If false, skip applying getters and just get the raw value

Returns the value of a path.

Example

// path
doc.get('age') // 47

// dynamic casting to a string
doc.get('age', String) // "47"

Document.prototype.id

Type:
  • «property»

The string version of this documents _id.

Note:

This getter exists on all documents by default. The getter can be disabled by setting the id option of its Schema to false at construction time.

new Schema({ name: String }, { id: false });

Document.prototype.init()

Parameters
  • doc «Object» document returned by mongo

Initializes the document without setters or marking anything modified.

Called internally after a document is returned from mongodb. Normally, you do not need to call this function on your own.

This function triggers init middleware. Note that init hooks are synchronous.


Document.prototype.inspect()

Helper for console.log


Document.prototype.invalidate()

Parameters
  • path «String» the field to invalidate
  • errorMsg «String|Error» the error which states the reason path was invalid
  • value «Object|String|Number|any» optional invalid value
  • [kind] «String» optional kind property for the error
Returns:
  • «ValidationError» the current ValidationError, with all currently invalidated paths

Marks a path as invalid, causing validation to fail.

The errorMsg argument will become the message of the ValidationError.

The value argument (if passed) will be available through the ValidationError.value property.

doc.invalidate('size', 'must be less than 20', 14);

doc.validate(function (err) {
  console.log(err)
  // prints
  { message: 'Validation failed',
    name: 'ValidationError',
    errors:
     { size:
        { message: 'must be less than 20',
          name: 'ValidatorError',
          path: 'size',
          type: 'user defined',
          value: 14 } } }
})

Document.prototype.isDirectModified()

Parameters
  • path «String»
Returns:
  • «Boolean»

Returns true if path was directly set and modified, else false.

Example

doc.set('documents.0.title', 'changed');
doc.isDirectModified('documents.0.title') // true
doc.isDirectModified('documents') // false

Document.prototype.isDirectSelected()

Parameters
  • path «String»
Returns:
  • «Boolean»

Checks if path was explicitly selected. If no projection, always returns true.

Example

Thing.findOne().select('nested.name').exec(function (err, doc) {
   doc.isDirectSelected('nested.name') // true
   doc.isDirectSelected('nested.otherName') // false
   doc.isDirectSelected('nested')  // false
})

Document.prototype.isInit()

Parameters
  • path «String»
Returns:
  • «Boolean»

Checks if path was initialized.


Document.prototype.isModified()

Parameters
  • [path] «String» optional
Returns:
  • «Boolean»

Returns true if this document was modified, else false.

If path is given, checks if a path or any full path containing path as part of its path chain has been modified.

Example

doc.set('documents.0.title', 'changed');
doc.isModified()                      // true
doc.isModified('documents')           // true
doc.isModified('documents.0.title')   // true
doc.isModified('documents otherProp') // true
doc.isDirectModified('documents')     // false

Document.prototype.isNew

Type:
  • «property»

Boolean flag specifying if the document is new.


Document.prototype.isSelected()

Parameters
  • path «String»
Returns:
  • «Boolean»

Checks if path was selected in the source query which initialized this document.

Example

Thing.findOne().select('name').exec(function (err, doc) {
   doc.isSelected('name') // true
   doc.isSelected('age')  // false
})

Document.prototype.markModified()

Parameters
  • path «String» the path to mark modified
  • [scope] «Document» the scope to run validators with

Marks the path as having pending changes to write to the db.

Very helpful when using Mixed types.

Example:

doc.mixed.type = 'changed';
doc.markModified('mixed.type');
doc.save() // changes to mixed.type are now persisted

Document.prototype.modifiedPaths()

Parameters
  • [options] «Object»
    • [options.includeChildren=false] «Boolean» if true, returns children of modified paths as well. For example, if false, the list of modified paths for doc.colors = { primary: 'blue' }; will not contain colors.primary. If true, modifiedPaths() will return an array that contains colors.primary.
Returns:
  • «Array»

Returns the list of paths that have been modified.


Document.prototype.overwrite()

Parameters
  • obj «Object» the object to overwrite this document with

Overwrite all values in this document with the values of obj, except for immutable properties. Behaves similarly to set(), except for it unsets all properties that aren't in obj.


Document.prototype.populate()

Parameters
  • [path] «String|Object» The path to populate or an options object
  • [callback] «Function» When passed, population is invoked
Returns:
  • «Document» this

Populates document references, executing the callback when complete. If you want to use promises instead, use this function with execPopulate()

Example:

doc
.populate('company')
.populate({
  path: 'notes',
  match: /airline/,
  select: 'text',
  model: 'modelName'
  options: opts
}, function (err, user) {
  assert(doc._id === user._id) // the document itself is passed
})

// summary
doc.populate(path)                   // not executed
doc.populate(options);               // not executed
doc.populate(path, callback)         // executed
doc.populate(options, callback);     // executed
doc.populate(callback);              // executed
doc.populate(options).execPopulate() // executed, returns promise

NOTE:

Population does not occur unless a callback is passed or you explicitly call execPopulate(). Passing the same path a second time will overwrite the previous path options. See Model.populate() for explaination of options.


Document.prototype.populated()

Parameters
  • path «String»
Returns:
  • «Array,ObjectId,Number,Buffer,String,undefined»

Gets _id(s) used during population of the given path.

Example:

Model.findOne().populate('author').exec(function (err, doc) {
  console.log(doc.author.name)         // Dr.Seuss
  console.log(doc.populated('author')) // '5144cf8050f071d979c118a7'
})

If the path was not populated, undefined is returned.


Document.prototype.replaceOne()

Parameters
  • doc «Object»
  • options «Object»
  • callback «Function»
Returns:
  • «Query»

Sends a replaceOne command with this document _id as the query selector.

Valid options:


Document.prototype.save()

Parameters
  • [options] «Object» options optional options
    • [options.validateBeforeSave] «Boolean» set to false to save without validating.
  • [fn] «Function» optional callback
Returns:
  • «Promise,undefined» Returns undefined if used with callback or a Promise otherwise.

Saves this document.

Example:

product.sold = Date.now();
product.save(function (err, product) {
  if (err) ..
})

The callback will receive two parameters

  1. err if an error occurred
  2. product which is the saved product

As an extra measure of flow control, save will return a Promise.

Example:

product.save().then(function(product) {
   ...
});

Document.prototype.schema

Type:
  • «property»

The documents schema.


Document.prototype.set()

Parameters
  • path «String|Object» path or object of key/vals to set
  • val «Any» the value to set
  • [type] «Schema|String|Number|Buffer|*» optionally specify a type for "on-the-fly" attributes
  • [options] «Object» optionally specify options that modify the behavior of the set

Sets the value of a path, or many paths.

Example:

// path, value
doc.set(path, value)

// object
doc.set({
    path  : value
  , path2 : {
       path  : value
    }
})

// on-the-fly cast to number
doc.set(path, value, Number)

// on-the-fly cast to string
doc.set(path, value, String)

// changing strict mode behavior
doc.set(path, value, { strict: false });

Document.prototype.toJSON()

Parameters
  • options «Object»
Returns:
  • «Object»

The return value of this method is used in calls to JSON.stringify(doc).

This method accepts the same options as Document#toObject. To apply the options to every document of your schema by default, set your schemas toJSON option to the same argument.

schema.set('toJSON', { virtuals: true })

See schema options for details.


Document.prototype.toObject()

Parameters
  • [options] «Object»
    • [options.getters=false] «Boolean» if true, apply all getters, including virtuals
    • [options.virtuals=false] «Boolean» if true, apply virtuals. Use { getters: true, virtuals: false } to just apply getters, not virtuals
    • [options.minimize=true] «Boolean» if true, omit any empty objects from the output
    • [options.transform=null] «Function|null» if set, mongoose will call this function to allow you to transform the returned object
    • [options.depopulate=false] «Boolean» if true, replace any conventionally populated paths with the original id in the output. Has no affect on virtual populated paths.
    • [options.versionKey=true] «Boolean» if false, exclude the version key (__v by default) from the output
    • [options.flattenMaps=false] «Boolean» if true, convert Maps to POJOs. Useful if you want to JSON.stringify() the result of toObject().
Returns:
  • «Object» js object

Converts this document into a plain javascript object, ready for storage in MongoDB.

Buffers are converted to instances of mongodb.Binary for proper storage.

Options:

  • getters apply all getters (path and virtual getters), defaults to false
  • virtuals apply virtual getters (can override getters option), defaults to false
  • minimize remove empty objects (defaults to true)
  • transform a transform function to apply to the resulting document before returning
  • depopulate depopulate any populated paths, replacing them with their original refs (defaults to false)
  • versionKey whether to include the version key (defaults to true)

Getters/Virtuals

Example of only applying path getters

doc.toObject({ getters: true, virtuals: false })

Example of only applying virtual getters

doc.toObject({ virtuals: true })

Example of applying both path and virtual getters

doc.toObject({ getters: true })

To apply these options to every document of your schema by default, set your schemas toObject option to the same argument.

schema.set('toObject', { virtuals: true })

Transform

We may need to perform a transformation of the resulting object based on some criteria, say to remove some sensitive information or return a custom object. In this case we set the optional transform function.

Transform functions receive three arguments

function (doc, ret, options) {}
  • doc The mongoose document which is being converted
  • ret The plain object representation which has been converted
  • options The options in use (either schema options or the options passed inline)

Example

// specify the transform schema option
if (!schema.options.toObject) schema.options.toObject = {};
schema.options.toObject.transform = function (doc, ret, options) {
  // remove the _id of every document before returning the result
  delete ret._id;
  return ret;
}

// without the transformation in the schema
doc.toObject(); // { _id: 'anId', name: 'Wreck-it Ralph' }

// with the transformation
doc.toObject(); // { name: 'Wreck-it Ralph' }

With transformations we can do a lot more than remove properties. We can even return completely new customized objects:

if (!schema.options.toObject) schema.options.toObject = {};
schema.options.toObject.transform = function (doc, ret, options) {
  return { movie: ret.name }
}

// without the transformation in the schema
doc.toObject(); // { _id: 'anId', name: 'Wreck-it Ralph' }

// with the transformation
doc.toObject(); // { movie: 'Wreck-it Ralph' }

Note: if a transform function returns undefined, the return value will be ignored.

Transformations may also be applied inline, overridding any transform set in the options:

function xform (doc, ret, options) {
  return { inline: ret.name, custom: true }
}

// pass the transform as an inline option
doc.toObject({ transform: xform }); // { inline: 'Wreck-it Ralph', custom: true }

If you want to skip transformations, use transform: false:

if (!schema.options.toObject) schema.options.toObject = {};
schema.options.toObject.hide = '_id';
schema.options.toObject.transform = function (doc, ret, options) {
  if (options.hide) {
    options.hide.split(' ').forEach(function (prop) {
      delete ret[prop];
    });
  }
  return ret;
}

var doc = new Doc({ _id: 'anId', secret: 47, name: 'Wreck-it Ralph' });
doc.toObject();                                        // { secret: 47, name: 'Wreck-it Ralph' }
doc.toObject({ hide: 'secret _id', transform: false });// { _id: 'anId', secret: 47, name: 'Wreck-it Ralph' }
doc.toObject({ hide: 'secret _id', transform: true }); // { name: 'Wreck-it Ralph' }

Transforms are applied only to the document and are not applied to sub-documents.

Transforms, like all of these options, are also available for toJSON. See this guide to JSON.stringify() to learn why toJSON() and toObject() are separate functions.

See schema options for some more details.

During save, no custom options are applied to the document before being sent to the database.


Document.prototype.toString()

Helper for console.log


Document.prototype.unmarkModified()

Parameters
  • path «String» the path to unmark modified

Clears the modified state on the specified path.

Example:

doc.foo = 'bar';
doc.unmarkModified('foo');
doc.save(); // changes to foo will not be persisted

Document.prototype.update()

Parameters
  • doc «Object»
  • options «Object»
  • callback «Function»
Returns:
  • «Query»

Sends an update command with this document _id as the query selector.

Example:

weirdCar.update({$inc: {wheels:1}}, { w: 1 }, callback);

Valid options:


Document.prototype.updateOne()

Parameters
  • doc «Object»
  • options «Object»
  • callback «Function»
Returns:
  • «Query»

Sends an updateOne command with this document _id as the query selector.

Example:

weirdCar.updateOne({$inc: {wheels:1}}, { w: 1 }, callback);

Valid options:


Document.prototype.validate()

Parameters
  • optional «Object» options internal options
  • callback «Function» optional callback called after validation completes, passing an error if one occurred
Returns:
  • «Promise» Promise

Executes registered validation rules for this document.

Note:

This method is called pre save and if a validation rule is violated, save is aborted and the error is returned to your callback.

Example:

doc.validate(function (err) {
  if (err) handleError(err);
  else // validation passed
});

Document.prototype.validateSync()

Parameters
  • pathsToValidate «Array|string» only validate the given paths
Returns:
  • «ValidationError,undefined» ValidationError if there are errors during validation, or undefined if there is no error.

Executes registered validation rules (skipping asynchronous validators) for this document.

Note:

This method is useful if you need synchronous validation.

Example:

var err = doc.validateSync();
if ( err ){
  handleError( err );
} else {
  // validation passed
}